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Blood Pressure In Children
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Blood Pressure And Insurance
Source: Disturbances Of The Heart
An epitome of the consensus of opinion of the risk of accepting
persons for insurance as modified by the blood pressure is presented
by Quackenbos. [Footnote: Quackenbos: New York Med. Jour., May 15,
1915, p. 999.] Some companies have ruled that at the age of 20 they
will take a person with a systolic pressure up to 137; at the age of
30 up to 140; at the age of 40 up to 144; at 50 up to 148, and at 60
up to 153, although some companies will not accept a person who
shows a persistent systolic pressure of 150. Quackenbos says that
when persons with higher blood pressures than the foregoing have
been kept under observation for some time, they sooner or later show
albumin and casts in the urine. In other words, this stage of higher
blood pressure is too frequently followed by cardiovascular-renal
disease for insurance companies to accept the risk.
On the other hand, too low a systolic pressure in an adult, 105 mm.
or below, should cause suspicion of some serious condition, the most
frequent being a latent or quiescent tuberculosis. Such low pressure
certainly shows decreased power of resistance to any acute disease.
Statistics prove that there are more deaths between the ages of 40
and 50 from cardiovascular-renal disease, that is from heart,
arterial and kidney degenerations, than formerly. Whether this is
due to the high tension at which we all live, or to the fact that
more children are saved and live to middle life, or whether the
prevention of many infectious diseases saves deficient individuals
for this middle life period, has not been determined. Probably all
are factors in bringing about these statistics.
While the continued use of alcohol may not cause arteriosclerosis
directly, it can cause such impaired digestion of foods in the
stomach and intestine, and such impaired activity of the glands,
especially the liver, that toxins from imperfect digestion and from
waste products are more readily produced and absorbed, and these are
believed by some directly or indirectly to cause cardiovascular-
renal disease. Hence alcohol is an important factor in causing the
death of persons from 40 to 50 years of age.
The question of whether or not a person smokes too much, and what
constitutes oversmoking, will soon be asked on all insurance blanks.
As tobacco almost invariably raises the blood pressure, and when the
blood pressure again falls there is again a craving in the man for
the narcotic, it must be a factor in producing, later in life,
cardiovascular-renal disease. Hence an increased systolic blood
pressure must be in part interpreted by the amount of tobacco that
the person uses. BLOOD PRESSURE AND PREGNANCY Evans [Footnote:
Evans: Month. Cyc. and Med. Bull., November, 1912, p. 649.] of
Montreal studied thirty-eight pregnant women who had eclampsia,
albuminuria and toxic vomiting, and found the systolic pressures to
vary from 200 to 140 mm. He did not find that the highest pressures
necessarily showed the greatest insufficiency of the kidneys, but
that the blood pressure must be considered in conjunction with other
toxic symptoms. In thirty-two cases he was compelled to induce labor
when the blood pressure was 150 mm. or under, while in four cases
with a blood pressure over 150 mm., the toxic symptoms were so
slight that the patients were allowed to go to term and had natural
A rising blood pressure in pregnancy, when associated with other
toxic symptoms, is indicative of danger, and Evans believes that a
systolic pressure of 160 mm, is ordinarily the danger limit.
Newell [Footnote: Newell, h. S.: The Blood Pressure During
Pregnancy, THE JOURNAL A. M. A., Jan. 30, 1915, p. 393.] has studied
the blood pressure during normal pregnancy, and finds that when the
systolic pressure is persistently below 100, the patient is far
below par, and that the condition should be improved in order for
her to withstand the strain of parturition. When the systolic
pressure is above 130, the patient should be carefully watched, and
he thinks that 150 is the danger line. Some pregnant women have an
increasing rise in blood pressure throughout the pregnancy, without
albuminuria. In other cases this rise is followed by the appearance
of albumin in the urine. Thirty-nine of the patients studied by
Newell had albumin in the urine without increase in blood pressure;
hence he believes that a slight amount of albumin may not be
accompanied by other symptoms. Five patients had a blood pressure of
140 or over throughout their pregnancy, and in only one of these
patients was albumin found. All passed through labor normally,
showing that a blood pressure below 150 may not necessarily be
indicative of a serious condition; but a patient who has a systolic
pressure over 135 must certainly be carefully watched. A fact
brought out by Newell's investigations is very important, namely,
that a continuously increased blood pressure is not as indicative of
trouble as when a blood pressure has been low and later suddenly
Hirst [Footnote: Hirst: Pennsylvania Med. Jour., May, 1915, p. 615.]
also urges that a high blood pressure in pregnancy does not
necessarily represent a toxemia, and also that a serious toxemia can
occur with a blood pressure of 130 or lower, although such instances
are rare. Hirst believes that when a toxemia is in evidence in
pregnancy while the blood pressure is low, the cause of the toxemia
is liver disturbance rather than kidney disturbance, and he thinks
this form of toxemia is more serious and has a higher mortality than
the nephritic type. Therefore in a patient with eclamptic symptoms
and a low blood pressure, the prognosis is more unfavorable than
when the blood pressure is high. He believes that if high blood
pressure occurs early in the months of pregnancy, there is
preexisting, although perhaps latent, nephritis. In these conditions
the diastolic pressure is also likely to be high.
With the patient eclamptic and stupid, whatever the date of the
pregnancy, Hirst would do venesection immediately in amount from 16
to 24 ounces, depending on what amount seems advisable. If
venesection is done before actual convulsions have occurred, the
blood pressure falls temporarily but rapidly rises again. He finds
that if a patient is past the eighth month, rupture of the membranes
will usually bring a rapid fall of from 50 to 90 points in systolic
pressure. Usually, of course, such rupture of the membranes will
induce labor. He finds that the fluidextract of veratrum viride is
valuable when eclampsia is in evidence or imminent. He gives it
hypodermically, 15 minims at the first dose and 5 minims
subsequently, until the systolic pressure is reduced to 140 or less.
He admits that this is rather strenuous treatment. He does not speak
of treatment by thyroid extracts, which has been regarded as
valuable by some other workers.
In these patients who show eclamptic symptoms, he maintains a milk
diet, and purging and sweating. It should be remembered that
venesection or profuse bleeding during induced parturition is more
valuable than sweating in all eclamptic cases and in all nephritic
convulsions. Profuse sweating does little more than take the water
out of the blood, and even concentrates the poisons in the blood.
Hirst causes purging by 2 ounces of castor oil and a few minims of
croton oil. He also advises large doses of magnesium sulphate. In
such serious disturbances as eclampsia, it is not necessary to give
a magnesium salt, which, it has been shown, can have unpleasant
action on the nervous system. Sodium sulphate is as valuable and is
not open to this danger.
Hirst urges that whatever the blood pressure, with albuminuria, as
soon as persistent headache occurs, and especially if there are
disturbances of vision, the pregnancy must be terminated at once. On
this there can be no other opinion. Temporizing with such a case is
After labor has been induced there is an immediate fall of blood
pressure, which lasts some hours. The pressure will again rise, and
usually is the last sign of toxemia to disappear, and he finds that
this increased pressure may last from two to three weeks when there
is not much nephritis, and several months when there is nephritis.
Although he says he has found no bad action from ergot, either by
the mouth or hypodermically in these eclamptic cases, it would seem
inadvisable to use ergot, which may raise the blood pressure. He
finds that pituitary extract "can cause dangerous rise of blood
Pelissier [Footnote: Pelissier: Archiv. mens., d'obst. et de gynec.,
Paris, 1915, iv, No. 5.] believes that when there is prolonged
vomiting in early pregnancy, with an increase in systolic blood
pressure, and with an increased viscosity of the blood, the outlook
is serious, and active treatment should be inaugurated.
Irving [Footnote: Irving, F. C.: The Systolic Blood Pressure in
Pregnancy, THE JOURNAL A. M. A., March 25, 1916, p. 935.] reports,
after a study of 5,000 pregnant women, that in 80 percent the
systolic blood pressure varied from 100 to 130; in 9 percent it was
below 100, at least at times, but a pressure below 90 does not mean
that the woman will suffer shock; in 11 percent the pressure was
above 130, and high pressure in young pregnant women more frequently
indicates toxemia than when it occurs in older women; high pressure
is more indicative of toxemia than is albuminuria; a progressively
increasing blood pressure is of bad omen, and most cases of
eclampsia occur with a pressure of 160 or more, but eclampsia may
occur with a moderate blood pressure. Irving believes that with
proper preliminary preventive treatment most eclampsia is
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