|PROCEDURE. Ask the following questions in the order here given:-- (a) "_If I were to buy 4 cents worth of candy and should give the storekeeper 10 cents, how much money would I get back?_" (b) "_If I bought 13 cents worth and gave t... Read more of Making Change at Intelligence Test.ca|| Informational|
Medical ArticlesMammary Abscess
(_Ague in the breast--Inflamed breast_.) This is a disease...
The symptoms of this are cramping pains in the abdomen, witho...
Complications Following Esophagoscopy
These are to be avoided in large measure by the exercise of ...
Earache - Otalgia
This may arise from various causes, but a common one is sudde...
Stage 4 Passing Through The Hiatus Esophageus
When the head is dropped, it must at the same time be moved ...
Is now known to be conveyed by the bite of a certain kind of m...
Punctures Case V
Mr. Cocking's son, aged 12, received a stab in the palm of th...
Tricuspid Stenosis Tricuspid Obstruction
This is rare and probably always congenital, and is supposed ...
The Future Of Life Extension
I beg the readers indulgence for a bit of futurology about wh...
Treat exactly as in acute diarrh[oe]a, except that P. P. shou...
are: A fetid breath, with ulceration and sloughing of the thr...
Decannulation in neoplastic cases depends upon the nature of...
For infants who cannot be nursed at the breast, cows' milk in ...
Bowels Glands Of
Symptoms of glandular trouble in the bowels are--weariness and...
Cardiovascular Renal Disease Arrhythmia
While this terns really signifies irregularity and intermit...
This is a contagious disease, consisting in an inflammation o...
Prognosis And Convalescence
The duration of acute endocarditis varies greatly; it may be ...
This trouble is found in the double form; first, of limbs whic...
The first step is to get rid of the gastric secretions. Ther...
For this the treatment may be given as in gastric fever, and, ...
Extraction Of Foreign Bodies From The Strictured Esophagus
Category: ESOPHAGOSCOPY FOR FOREIGN BODY
Source: A Manual Of Peroral Endoscopy And Laryngeal Surgery
bodies of relatively small size will lodge in a strictured esophagus.
Removal may be rendered difficult when the patient has an upper
stricture relatively larger than the lower one, and the foreign body
passing the first one lodges at the second. Still more difficult is
the case when the second stricture is considerably below the first,
and not concentric. Under these circumstances it is best to divulse
the upper stricture mechanically, when a small tube can be inserted
past the first stricture to the site of lodgement of the foreign body.
Prolonged sojourn of foreign bodies in the esophagus, while not so
common as in the bronchi is by no means of rare occurrence. Following
their removal, stricture of greater or less extent is almost certain
to follow from contraction of the fibrous-tissue produced by the
Fluoroscopic esophagoscopy is a questionable procedure, for the
esophagus can be explored throughout by sight. In cases in which it is
suspected that a foreign body, such as pin, has partially escaped from
the esophagus, the fluoroscope may aid in a detailed search to
determine its location, but under no circumstances should it be the
guide for the application of forceps, because the transparent but
vital tissues are almost certain to be included in the grasp.
 Complications and Dangers of Esophagoscopy for Foreign Bodies.
Asphyxia from the pressure of the foreign body, or the foreign body
plus the esophagoscope, is a possibility (Fig. 91). Faulty position of
the patient, especially a low position of the head, with faulty
direction of the esophagoscope may cause the tube mouth to press the
membranous tracheo-esophageal wall into the trachea, so as temporarily
to occlude the tracheal lumen, creating a very dangerous situation in
a patient under general anesthesia. Prompt introduction of a
bronchoscope, with oxygen and amyl nitrite insufflation and artificial
respiration, may be necessary to save life. The danger is greater, of
course, with chloroform than with ether anesthesia. Cocain poisoning
may occur in those having an idiosyncrasy to the drug. Cocain should
never be used with children, and is of little use in esophagoscopy in
adults. Its application is more annoying and requires more time than
the esophagoscopic removal of the foreign bodies without local
anesthesia. Traumatic esophagitis, septic mediastinitis, cervical
cellulitis, and, most dangerous, gangrenous esophagitis may be
present, caused by the foreign body itself or ill-advised efforts at
removal. Perforation of the esophagus with the esophagoscope is rare,
in skillful hands, if the esophageal wall is sound. The esophageal
wall, however, may be weakened by ulceration, malignant disease, or
trauma, so that the possibility of making a false passage should
always deter the endoscopist from advancing the tube beyond a visible
point of weakening. To avoid entering a false passage previously
created, is often exceedingly difficult, and usually it is better to
wait for obliterative adhesive inflammation to seal the tissue layers
Previous: Spatula-protected Method