Sources: Papers On Health
It is not always easy to say definitely whether a
bone is broken or not. In general, however, the following are signs of
fracture:--(1) Loss of power in the limb; (2) Swelling or pain at the
injured spot; (3) Distortion of the limb, usually shorter than natural;
gentle pulling makes it temporarily regain its natural position; (4)
When the limb is gently moved, it moves at some spot between the
joints, and a grating sound is heard; (5) In case of a bone which lies
near the skin, a touch will perceive the irregularity due to the
Pending the surgeon's arrival, if there is a fracture, do not attempt
to move the patient till the limb is so secured that the broken bone is
prevented from moving. If the arm bone is broken, put one splint inside
and another outside the arm, and tie two bandages, one on each side of
the fracture. Sling the arm in a small arm-sling like the straw
envelope of a bottle.
If the thigh be fractured, get a long splint, such as a broom handle or
a rifle, placing it from the pit of the arm to the foot. Bandage around
the chest, the hip bones, legs, and feet, and then by two bandages, one
above and the other below the fracture.
If the leg bone or bones be broken, an umbrella makes a good splint.
Another splint should be applied on the inside of the leg, the two
firmly bandaged together, and finally the legs tied together.
If the knee-cap only be fractured, tie the leg on a splint from hip to
foot, and keep the limb raised.
Almost any firm substance which can keep the limb at rest can be used
for a splint, but if hard it should be padded. If the fracture is
accompanied with severe bleeding, stop the flow first before attending
to the fracture. (See Wounds.)