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See Gravel. ...


It is true that ethical medical doctors use the least-risky ...


In the common form this is purely neuralgic. The nerves are in...

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Cholera Morbus

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Site Of Lodgment

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Technic Of Specular Esophagoscopy

Recumbent patient. Boyce position. The larynx is to be expos...

Heat Internal

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The Surgical Dissection Of The Axillary And Brachial Regions Displaying The Relative Order Of Their Contained Parts

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_This is preaching rebellion!_ I know it is, and it is wit...

The Nose

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While this name is more or less unfortunate, it has long been...

Bronchoscopy In Diseases Of The Trachea And Bronchi

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Nostrils The

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Troubles Of The Nervous System

The Nervous System is not easily Damaged. The nervous system ...

Measuring Rule

Source: A Manual Of Peroral Endoscopy And Laryngeal Surgery

It is customary to locate esophageal
lesions by denoting their distance from the incisor teeth. This is
readily done by measuring the distance from the proximal end of the
esophagoscope to the upper incisor teeth, or in their absence, to the
upper alveolar process, and subtracting this measurement from the
known length of the tube. Thus, if an esophagoscope 45 cm. long be
introduced and we find that the distance from the incisor teeth to the
ocular end of the esophagoscope as measured by the rule is 20 cm., we
subtract this 20 cm. from the total length of the esophagoscope (45
cm.) and then know that the distal end of the tube is 25 cm. from the
incisor teeth. Graduation marks on the tube have been used, but are

[FIG. 7.--Measuring rule for gauging in centimeters the depth of any
location by subtraction of the length of the uninserted portion of the
esophagoscope or bronchoscope. This is preferable to graduations
marked on the tubes, though the tubes can be marked with a scale if

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