Sources: A Manual Of Peroral Endoscopy And Laryngeal Surgery

If the operator has no refractive error he will need

two pairs of plane protective spectacles with very large eyes. If

ametropic, corrective lenses are necessary, and duplicate spectacles

must be in charge of a nurse. For presbyopia two pairs of spectacles

for 40 cm. distance and 65 cm. distance must be at hand. Hook temple

frames should be used so that they can be easily changed and adjusted

by the nurse when the lenses become spattered. The spectacle nurse has

ready at all times the extra spectacles, cleaned and warmed in a pan

of heated water so that they will not be fogged by the patient's

breath, and she changes them without delay as often as they become

soiled. The operator should work with both eyes open and with his

right eye at the tube mouth. The operating room should be somewhat

darkened so as to facilitate the ignoring of the image in the left

eye; any lighting should be at the operator's back, and should be

insufficient to cause reflections from the inner surface of his


[FIG. 40.--The author's endoscopic bougies. The end consists of a

flexible silk woven tip attached securely to a steel shank. Sizes 8 to

30 French catheter scale. A metallic form of this bougie is useful in

the trachea; but is not so safe for esophageal use.]

[FIG. 41.--The author's laryngeal bougie for the dilatation of

cicatricial laryngeal stenosis. Made in 10 sizes. The shaded triangle

shows the cross-section at the widest part.]

[FIG. 42.--The author's bronchoscopic and esophagoscopic table.]

[46] Endoscopic Table.--Any operating table may be used, but the

work is facilitated if a special table can be had which allows the

placing of the patient in all required positions. The table

illustrated in fig. 42 is so arranged that when the false top is drawn

forward on the railroad, the head piece drops and the patient is

placed in the correct (Boyce) position for esophagoscopy or

bronchoscopy, i.e., with the head and shoulders extending over the end

of the table. By means of the wheel the plane of the table may

be altered to any desired angle of inclination or height of head.