Informational Site NetworkInformational Site Network
Privacy
 


Home


Medical Articles


Mother's Remedies


Household Tips


Medicine History


Forgotten Remedies


Search

Medical Articles

Amputations

These are often performed in cases in which proper treatment o...

Pain Severe In Limbs

This is often not due to any trouble in the joint itself, but ...

Illness The Root Of

In treating any trouble it is well to get to the root of it. O...

Common Cramp

Although either the positive or the negative pole, applied to...

Trismus Lockjaw

For traumatic trismus, use the B D current, of vigorous force...

Nerves Shaken

By this we mean, not the nerve trouble which follows a sudden ...

Contraindications

There is no absolute contraindication to careful esophagosco...

Period Of Desquamation Or Peeling-off

About the sixth or seventh day, the epidermis, or cuticle of ...

Head Soaping

Have a piece of M'Clinton's soap, a good shaving brush, and a ...

Rose

See Erysipelas. ...

Etiology

One of the most common causes of hypertension is clue to exce...

Knee Swelling Of Or Pain In

For ordinary slight injuries, complete rest, and rubbing with ...

Bowels Lax

A teaspoonful of lemon juice (freshly expressed), along with h...

The Use Of The Will

IT is not generally recognized that the will can be t...

Diet Is Not Enough

Those isolated, long-lived peoples discovered by Weston A. Pr...

Ulcers Case Xxvi

The following case occurred in the person of a lady with vari...

In Excessive Heat And Continuous Delirium A Half-bath May Be Given

also, every time the packing sheet is changed. The rule is that...

Tetanus

This is substantially the same thing as trismus, except that ...

Bile On The Stomach

Take half a teacupful of hot water every ten minutes for ten h...

Cauliflower Growths

These begin like warts, and in the earlier stages poulticing a...



Venous Pressure





Category: Uncategorized
Source: Disturbances Of The Heart

The venous pressure, after a long neglect, is now again being
studied, and its determination is urged as of diagnostic and
prognostic significance.

Hooker [Footnote: Hooker: Am. Jour. Physiol., March, 1916.] says
there is a progressive rise of venous pressure from youth to old
age. He has described an apparatus [Footnote: Hooker: Am. Jour.
Physiol., 1914, xxxv, 73.] which allows of the reading of the blood
pressure in a vein of the hand when the arm is at absolute rest, and
best with the patient in bed and reclining at an angle of 45
degrees. He finds that just before death there is a rapid rise in
venous pressure, or a continuously high pressure above the 20 cm. of
water level, and he believes that a venous pressure continuously
above this 20 cm. of water limit which is not lowered by digitalis
or other means is serious; and that the heart cannot long stand such
a condition. These dangerous rises in venous pressure are generally
coincident with a fall of systolic arterial pressure, although there
may be no constant relation between the two. He also finds that with
an increase of venous pressure the urinary output decreases. This,
of course, shows venous stasis in the kidneys as well as a probable
lowering of arterial pressure.

Clark [Footnote: Clark, A. D.: A Study of the Diagnostic and
Prognostic Significance of Venous Pressure Observations in Cardiac
Disease, Arch. Int. Med., October, 1915, p. 587.] did not find that
venesection prevented a subsequent rapid rise in venous pressure in
dire cases. From his investigations he concludes that a venous
pressure of 20 cm. of water is a danger limit between compensation
and decompensation of the heart, and a rise above this point will
precede the clinical signs of decompensation.

Hooker also found that there are daily variations of venous pressure
from 10 to 20 cm. of water, with an average of 15 cm., while in
sleep it falls 7 or 8 cm.

It seems probable that there may be a special nervous mechanism of
the veins which may increase the blood pressure in them as
epinephrin solution may cause some constriction.

Wiggers [Footnote: Wiggers C. J.: The Supravascular Venous Pulse in
Man, THE JOURNAL. A.M.A., May 1, 1915, p. 1485.] describes a method
of taking and interpreting the supraclavicular venous pulse. He also
[Footnote: Wiggers C. J.: The Contour of the Normal Arterial Pulse,
THE JOURNAL. A.M.A., April 24, 1915, p. 1380.] carefully describes
the readings and the different phases of normal arterial pulse, and
urges that it should be remembered that "the pulse as palpated or
recorded from any artery is the variation in the arterial volume
produced by the intra-arterial pressure change at that point."

A quick method of estimating the venous pressure by lowering and
raising the arm has long been utilized. The dilatation of the veins
of the back of the hand when the hand is raised should disappear,
and they should practically collapse, in normal conditions, when the
hand is at the level of the apex of the heart. When the venous
pressure is increased, this collapse will not occur until the hand
is above the level of the heart. Oliver [Footnote: Oliver: Quart.
Med Jour., 1907, i, 59.] found that the venous pressure denoted by
the collapse of the veins may be shown approximately in millimeters
of mercury by multiplying by 2 each inch above the level of the
heart in which the veins collapse. When a normal person reclines
after standing there is a fall in venous pressure, and when he again
stands erect there is an increase in venous pressure.

Bailey [Footnote: Bailey: Am. Jour Med. Sc., May, 1911, p. 709.]
states that in interpreting pulsation in the peripheral veins, it
should not be forgotten that they may overlie pulsating arteries.
Pulsation in veins may be due also to an aneurysmal dilatation, or
to direct connection with an artery. As the etiology in many
instances of varicose veins is uncertain, he thinks that they may be
caused by incompetence of the right heart, more or less temporary
perhaps, from muscular exertion. This incompetence being frequently
repeated, peripheral veins may dilate. Moreover, the contraction of
the right heart may cause a wave in the veins of the extremities,
and he believes that incompetency of the tricuspid valve may be the
cause of varicosities in the veins of the extremities.





Next: Normal Blood Pressure For Adults

Previous: Factors Increasing The Blood Pressure



Add to del.icio.us Add to Reddit Add to Digg Add to Del.icio.us Add to Google Add to Twitter Add to Stumble Upon
Add to Informational Site Network
Report
Privacy
SHAREADD TO EBOOK


Viewed 1199