The swallowing function can be studied only with

the fluoroscope; esophagoscopy for diagnosis, should therefore always

be preceded by a fluoroscopic study of deglutition with a barium or

other opaque mixture and examination of the thoracic organs to

eliminate external pressure on the esophagus as the cause of stenosis.

Complete physical examination and Wassermann reaction are further

routine preliminaries to any esophagoscopy. Special laboratory tests

are done as may be indicated. The physical examination is meant to

include a careful examination of the lips, tongue, palate, pharynx,

and a mirror examination of the larynx when age permits.

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