Categories: Diseases of The Blood And Ductless Galnds
An affection characterized by persistent increase in the white
blood corpuscles, associated with changes, either alone or together, in
the spleen, lymphatic glands and bone-marrow.
1. Spleen and Bone-Marrow, (Spleen-Medullary) type. The changes are
especially localized in the spleen and in the bone-marrow while the blood
shows a great increase in elements which are derived especially from the
2. Lymphatic Type. The changes in this type are chiefly localized in the
lymphatic apparatus, the blood showing an especial increase in those
elements derived from the lymph glands.
Causes--Unknown. It is most common before middle age.
Symptoms. Either type may be acute or chronic. The invasion may be
gradual, sometimes with disturbance of the stomach and bowels, or
nose-bleed. (a) The first type is the common one. The spleen generally
becomes enlarged; it is sometimes tender and painful, it may occupy over
half of the abdominal cavity and varies in size after a hemorrhage,
diarrhea or after a meal. There may be paleness of the face, etc., early
and late nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and dysentery are common, as is also
ascites (dropsy in the abdomen). The pulse is rapid, full and soft. Fever
is usual. Hemorrhages occur in the skin, retina, pleura, peritoneum, etc.
Headache, dizziness, short breathing, and fainting may occur from the
anemia. The liver may be enlarged. The blood shows a great increase in the
white cells. Sometimes they are more numerous than the red blood cells.
(b) Lymphatic type is rare, various groups of the lymph glands are
enlarged, usually separate, but sometimes matted together; others, such as
the tonsils may become large. The blood shows an increase of the white
cells, but less than in the other form. The spleen is usually somewhat
enlarged. Recovery is rare; the lymphatic cases may last only six or eight
weeks. The course is usually progressive for two or three years.
Treatment. The same as for Pernicious Anaemia.