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Source: A Manual Of Peroral Endoscopy And Laryngeal Surgery

Direct laryngoscopy, bronchoscopy, esophagoscopy and gastroscopy
are procedures in which the lower air and food passages are
inspected and treated by the aid of electrically lighted tubes
which serve as specula to manipulate obstructing tissues out of the
way and to bring others into the line of direct vision.
Illumination is supplied by a small tungsten-filamented, electric,
cold lamp situated at the distal extremity of the instrument in a
special groove which protects it from any possible injury during the
introduction of instruments through the tube. The bronchi and the
esophagus will not allow dilatation beyond their normal caliber;
therefore, it is necessary to have tubes of the sizes to fit
these passages at various developmental ages. Rupture or even
over-distention of a bronchus or of the thoracic esophagus is almost
invariably fatal. The armamentarium of the endoscopist must be
complete, for it is rarely possible to substitute, or to improvise
makeshifts, while the bronchoscope is in situ. Furthermore, the
instruments must be of the proper model and well made; otherwise
difficulties and dangers will attend attempts to see them.

Next: Laryngoscopes

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