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The patient is quite helpless, and there is usually a strong s...
See Paralysis. ...
Difficulties Of Direct Laryngoscopy
The larynx can be directly exposed in any patient whose mout...
These will be found treated under the various heads of Colds, ...
Wine And Water If No Reaction Can Be Obtained
Should the patient remain cold in his pack for longer than an...
Take A D current, of very mild force. Place P. P. at the feet...
Position For Bronchoscopy And Esophagoscopy
The dorsally recumbent patient is so placed that the head an...
For healing wounds, burns, ulcers, irritation of mucous membr...
Foreign Bodies In The Stomach
Gastroscopy is indicated in cases of a foreign body that ref...
Teething Of Children
Affections arising from teething of children, are often of a ...
Removal Of Open Safety Pins From The Trachea And Bronchi
Removal of a closed safety pin presents no difficulty if it i...
From The Hygienic Dictionary
Diagnosis.  In the United States, making a diagnosis impli...
The development of permanent injury to one or more valves o...
Sleep And Rest
Why We Need Rest. A most important element in a life of healt...
The gastroscope is of the same construction as the esophagos...
This is severe pain in one part or other of the body, sometime...
Care Of Instruments
The endoscopist must either personally care for his instrume...
This arises from the undue contraction of some of the muscles ...
Probably most acute infections cause more or less myocarditis...
This is an affection of the bowels of the nature of diarrhoea,...
Site Of Lodgement
Category: FOREIGN BODIES IN THE ESOPHAGUS
Source: A Manual Of Peroral Endoscopy And Laryngeal Surgery
Almost all foreign bodies are arrested in the
cervical esophagus at the level of the superior aperture of the
thorax. A physiologic narrowing is present at this level, produced in
part by muscular contraction, and mainly by the crowding of the
adjacent viscera into the fixed and narrow upper thoracic aperture. If
dislodged from this position the foreign body usually passes downward
to be arrested at the next narrowing or to pass into the stomach. The
esophagoscopist who encounters the difficulty of introduction at the
cricopharyngeal fold expects to find the foreign body above the fold.
Such, however, is almost never the case. The cricopharyngeus muscle
functionates in starting the foreign body downward as if it were food;
but the narrowing at the upper thoracic aperture arrests it because
the esophageal peristaltic musculature is feeble as compared to the
powerful inferior constrictor.