See Paralysis. ...
Paroxysmal Tachycardia Management
There is no specific treatment for paroxysmal tachycardia. Wh...
A few of the anatomical details must be kept especially in mi...
Technic Of Specular Esophagoscopy
Recumbent patient. Boyce position. The larynx is to be expos...
Inflammation Of The Bowels - Enteritis
This consists in inflammation of the muscular and peritoneal ...
Alkalis (eg Ammonia Soda Or Potash)
Give dilute vinegar, followed by white of egg. ...
Endoscopy On The Human Being
Dog work offers but little practice in laryngoscopy. Because...
From The Hygienic Dictionary
Autointoxication.  the accumulations on the bowel wall be...
Enlargement Or Ossification Of The Heart
Treat these two affections in the same way. Take the A D curr...
Extent Of Electric Agency
When we have settled upon the position that the electricity o...
ADOPTING the phrase of our forefathers, with all its ...
Other Kinds Of Cancer
There seem to be many other kinds of cancer, at least if you ...
Often caused by children sucking matches. There is a burning i...
Methods Of Treatment
Irritating applications probably provoke recurrences, becaus...
Inflammation Of The Finger Case Xxxii
Miss B. aged 23, had a slight scratch on the inside of the in...
WORK for the better progress of the human race is most effect...
Inspection Of The Party Wall In Cases Of Suspected Laryngeal Malignancy
When taking a specimen the party wall should be inspected by...
A very useful and comparatively safe method is illustrated i...
Roentgenray Study In Foreign Body Cases
Roentgenography.--All cases of chest disease should have the ...
Acute Stenosis Of The Larynx
Etiology.--Causes of a relatively sudden narrowing of the lum...
Dimensions Of The Trachea And Bronchi
Category: ANATOMY OF LARYNX, TRACHEA, BRONCHI AND ESOPHAGUS, ENDOSCOPICALLY CONSIDERED
Source: A Manual Of Peroral Endoscopy And Laryngeal Surgery
It will be noted that the
bronchi divide monopodially, not dichotomously. While the lumina of
the individual bronchi diminish as the bronchi divide, the sum of the
areas shows a progressive increase in total tubular area of
cross-section. Thus, the sum of the areas of cross-section of the two
main bronchi, right and left, is greater than the area of cross
section of the trachea. This follows the well known dynamic law. The
relative increase in surface as the tubes branch and diminish in size
increases the friction of the passing air, so that an actual increase
in area of cross section is necessary, to avoid increasing resistance
to the passage of air.
The cadaveric dimensions of the tracheobronchial tree may be
epitomized approximately as follows:
Male Female Child Infant
Diameter trachea, 14 X 20 12 X 16 8 X 10 6 X 7
Length trachea, cm. 12.0 10.0 6.0 4.0
Length right bronchus 2.5 2.5 2.0 1.5
Length left bronchus 5.0 5.0 3.0 2.5
Length upper teeth to trachea 15.0 23.0 10.0 9.0
Length total to secondary bronchus 32.0 28.0 19.0 15.0
In considering the foregoing table it is to be remembered that in life
muscle tonus varies the lumen and on the whole renders it smaller. In
the selection of tubes it must be remembered that the full diameter of
the trachea is not available on account of the glottic aperture which
in the adult is a triangle measuring approximately 12 X 22 X 22 mm.
and permitting the passage of a tube not over 10 mm. in diameter
without risk of injury. Furthermore a tube which filled the trachea
would be too large to enter either main bronchus.
The normal movements of the trachea and bronchi are respiratory,
pulsatory, bechic, and deglutitory. The two former are rhythmic while
the two latter are intermittently noted during bronchoscopy. It is
readily observed that the bronchi elongate and expand during
inspiration while during expiration they shorten and contract. The
bronchoscopist must learn to work in spite of the fact that the
bronchi dilate, contract, elongate, shorten, kink, and are dinged and
pushed this way and that. It is this resiliency and movability that
make bronchoscopy possible. The inspiratory enlargement of lumen opens
up the forceps spaces, and the facile bronchoscopist avails himself of
the opportunity to seize the foreign body.
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