Sources: Papers On Health
After sending for a surgeon the first thing to be
looked at in case of any wound is the bleeding. Sometimes this is
trifling and needs no particular effort to staunch it. When, however, a
vein or artery has been lacerated the flow must immediately be attended
If the blood be welling up from the wound and of a dark red colour it
is venous blood, if it spurt up from the wound and be of a bright red
colour it is arterial blood. What has to be done is to place a pressure
on the vein or artery to prevent the blood escaping.
Venous bleeding may generally be stopped by putting a pad of lint
dipped in cold water on the wound and tying it on with a bandage. If
the blood continues to flow, tie a bandage round the limb on the side
of the wound away from the heart and keep the limb raised.
Arterial bleeding must be treated by tying on the pad and bandage, and
if the bleeding continues, stopping the flow in the artery on the side
of the wound nearest the heart, and at some point where it passes
over a bone so that pressure may be efficiently applied. The bandage
for thus tying an artery may be simply made by knotting a handkerchief
(Diagram IV.), putting something solid inside the knot, then placing
the knot on the artery at the desired point and tying tightly. If
required this may be tightened by putting a stick under and twisting
round, then tying the stick in position (Diagram II.).
If the palm of the hand is cut, put a pad inside the hand, close the
fingers, and tie the bandage round the clenched fist.
If the wound is in the forearm, put a pad in the bend of the elbow, and
tie the forearm firmly up on the arm. If the wound is above the elbow
stop the main artery in the way above indicated. This artery runs
pretty well under the inner seam of the sleeve of a man's coat. Diagram
I. shows how this artery may be stopped by direct pressure of the hand;
Diagram II. how a tourniquet may be applied.
For bleeding in the arm-pit, press in a pad and tie the arm down to the
side. It may be necessary here to compress the artery with the thumb.
The artery here lies behind the inner bend of the collar bone lying on
the first rib.
In case of arterial bleeding about the head apply the bandage as in
Diagram III. The pressure is here applied right over the wound, as the
skull is always behind on which to press the artery.
A wound in the leg should be treated in a similar way to a wound in the
arm. Diagram V. shows the stopping of bleeding above the knee.
Do not remove the pressure until the arrival of a medical man.